Well, maybe not ALL, but how much do you want to know anyway? You want quality, good looks, style, functional, and long-lasting.
Kitchen sinks are typically made from stainless steel, enamel-coated cast iron, solid surfaces and composites. If you choose a solid surface counter, such as granite or engineered stone, a stainless steel sink works well.
Another consideration is to go with a double or single sink? This will depend on how you use your sink, and what you prefer. Both are fine, it goes to the functionality.
Sinks can be top mounted, which was common for many years, or the more popular undermount style of today. The theory is that undermount sinks do not have that sometimes difficult to clean edge around them.
One other option; do you like the look of the farmhouse style sink? These protrude about an inch beyond the front of the lower cabinets. Again, it is totally up to what you like. The most common materials used for farmhouse sinks are cast iron and fire clay, although they can be found made of stainless steel as well.